By Jeff Bumgarner
Seven of ten African American males among the a while of 18 and 34 think they've been sufferers of an insidious kind of discrimination: racial profiling. Are they correct? Or relatively, is profiling a valid, reasonable, and potent legislation enforcement tool?This specific instruction manual examines the background at the back of racial, gender, and spiritual profiling, charts its guiding philosophies, surveys helping criminal doctrines and laws, and offers the arguments professional and con. It makes a speciality of profiling via police, prosecutors, and judges; federal and kingdom civil rights legislation; key criminal situations and experiences; and extra. even if one needs to discover racial profiling by way of kingdom soldiers in New Jersey, the id of serial killers through the FBI, or the screening of strength terrorists by means of airport safeguard, this can be the ebook to refer to.
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Additional resources for Profiling and Criminal Justice in America: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues)
Samuel Walker noted that uncontrolled discretion can result in (Walker 1999) • denial of due process for suspects • denial of equal protection under the law • poor police-community relations, particularly when most of the discretionary decisions to enforce the law are concentrated in particular communities or neighborhoods • poor personnel management • poor planning and policy development Additionally, discretionary enforcement of the law can reduce the deterrent effect of the law and, because of discretion’s hidden nature, can make officer decisions difficult to review (Brooks 2001).
Although law enforcement has an argument that profiling is a tool that helps identify criminal suspects, there is significantly less rationale for considering race, gender, or other characteristics when it comes to prosecution decisions or rulings from the bench. And yet, evidence does suggest that racial, gender, and other differences among people seem to matter as, in the aggregate, they are treated differently. In the next chapter, an examination of References 33 the discretion criminal justice officials have includes segments on prosecutorial and judicial discretion.
Police officers much more a part of the political machinery than their London counterparts. Police officers were usually recruited by political leaders of a given ward or precinct and served at the pleasure of the political leadership. For example, in Cincinnati, after an election in 1880 changed the party in power, 219 of the 295 members of the police force were dismissed. Six years later, after another political power shift, 238 of the 289 patrolmen and eight of sixteen lieutenants were removed (Walker 1977).