By Professor of Sociology Eliezer Ben-Rafael
Who and what's a Jew? Is there any universal denominator among an ultra-Orthodox rabbi of an Israeli North African neighborhood and a Berkeley educational of the flow for a mundane and Humanistic Judaism? Do Jews across the world convergre and emphasize their team spirit or do they proportion contrasting ideas of collective identification? half I of this publication provides a scientific dialogue of Jewish identities during this period of (post)modernity. the chance is available via a collection of necessary texts, which look partly II. those texts approximately Jewish id have been invited, in 1958, by means of Ben-Gurion from 50 intellectuals - rabbis, writers, scientists and legal professionals -, from the Diaspora and Israel, consultant of the significant streams of up to date Jewish notion. This publication is additionally on hand in paperback.
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Additional resources for Jewish Identities: Fifty Intellectuals Answer Ben Gurion (Jewish Identities in a Changing World Jewish Identities in a)
Jacob Emden, for example, deﬁned it as the natural language of the Jews, and Jonathan Eybeschütz waged a battle against anyone who did not sustain “the Hebrews’ language,” that is, who did not speak or write it correctly. A. L. Lilienblum, and Judah Leib Gordon (Yalag) wrote at least some of their work in Hebrew. Joshua Heshel Shor and Yitzhak Arter founded the Hebrew paper Hehalutz, whose goals included ﬁghting prejudice and waging war on stagnant tradition. The attitude of many followers of the Enlightenment movement to Hebrew was reinforced by a renewed appreciation of the Bible at the expense of the Talmud.
Within a short time, the movement revoked the laws of kashrut and the Sabbath, and instituted new principles in respect to matters of personal status. Their basic tenet was that the Jews were not a People; Judaism was only a religion of communities. They argued that only their “modernized” formulations could prevent the youth, alienated by traditional Judaism, from renouncing it altogether. Abraham Geiger (1810-1874), one of the foremost spokesman of the Reform Movement, stated that Judaism should display an unfailing willingness to adapt its rules of both ritual and basic concepts to modern realities (Neusner, 1995).
The ﬁrst of these was the extension of the Enlightenment (Haskala) Movement in 19th century Eastern Europe. Unlike the Jews in Central Europe, on the whole those in the Eastern part of the continent had never questioned the articles of religious faith and traditional beliefs. Like their Central European coreligionists, however, they too subscribed to philosophical rationalism. Mordecai Aaron Guenzburg (1795–1846), one of the founders of the Enlightenment, refrained from voicing opposition to halakha, coming out only against the “practices,” which he claimed were an “unbinding” addition to it.