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By Richard Bosley, Martin M. Tweedale

This booklet is an intensive overview and research of Aristotelian idea as got and tailored via such medieval commentators as Ammonius, Philoponus, Boethius, al-Farabi, Yahya ibn 'Adi, Avicenna, Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, Martin of Dacia, Simon of Faversham, John Duns Scotus, Peter of Spain, Robert Kilwardby, William of Ockham, and Giles of Rome. The discussions diversity from metaphysics to good judgment, linguistics, and epistemology, encompassing such subject matters as being, god, causation, reality, potentiality, universals, individuation, signification, cognition, sure bet, infallibility, blunders, lack of knowledge, analogy, grammar, interpretation, foundationalism, and the eucharist and transubstantiation.

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2. ' Since I'm going to give that rather extensive discussion, I'll pass over it for now and turn immediately to a third internal problem. 3. There is a problem in understanding just what the doctrine of categories is a doctrine of. Ammonius summarizes the ancient debate on this question as follows: "Notice that commentators have differed on this, some saying that the Philosopher is discussing words [phonai *], some [saying] things [pragmata], and some, concepts [noemata*]" (8, 21-9, 1). Ammonius himself pronounces this Solomonic compromise (which had actually been around since Iamblichus): "The Philosopher's aim here, therefore, is to treat words that mean things through mediating concepts" (9, 10-11).

The immediate purpose of the human body," he says, "is the rational soul and its operations, since matter is for the sake of the form, and instruments are for the sake of the agent's operations. 3c). Â . a likeness of God's goodness is the purpose of all things"; see also my article 'Why Would God Create This World? , Being and Goodness [Ithaca: Cornell University Press 1990] 229-49, esp. 242-3). 6 As William Alston observes after summarizing the importance of skepticism in epistemology, "I do not deny that skepticism is worthy of serious and prolonged consideration, but I do deny that it must find a place on every worthwhile epistemological agenda" (Epistemic Justification [Ithaca: Cornell University Press 1989], 2).

In this case has to do with the Athenians who first began the war. 62 I am not at all clear on how this example could be construed on the Foundationalist interpretation of Aquinas. What combination of self-evident propositions and propositions evident to the senses of a person living in Aquinas's time could yield the conclusion that the Medes made war on the Athenians? , II lectio 9: "ponit exemplum de causa movente, tangens quamdam Graecorum historiam: videlicet quod Athenienses quondam, adiunctis sibi quibusdam aliis Graecis, invaserunt Sardenses, qui erant subiecti regi Medorum; et ideo Medi invaserunt Athenienses.

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