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Extra resources for Anatomy of neuropsychiatry : the new anatomy of the basal forebrain and its implications for neuropsychiatric illness

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While the concept of the extended amygdala has yet to receive universal acceptance (Swanson, 2000; see also Basic Science Box 4), it has been amply confirmed in other laboratories (see next chapter), and its heuristic value is well established (McGinty, 1999; Koob and Le Moal, 2006). 4 CONCLUSION It is apparent that limbic system proponents and opponents alike are looking for something beyond the limbic system. One of LeDoux’s major complaints is that MacLean “packaged . . ” LeDoux maintains that different survival functions must be subserved by different emotional systems that need to be studied separately.

4 Amygdala: What Is It? This is a pertinent question (Swanson and Petrovich, 1998), and it may come as a surprise that we still debate the anatomical organization of such a 1 Substantia innominata is often referred to as the “substantia innominata of Reichert” for the simple reason that in his atlas of the human brain, Reichert (1859) left part of the area underneath the temporal limb of the anterior commissure unnamed. It may be more appropriate, however, to attribute the term to the German anatomist Johann Christian Reil (1809), who included the region in what he referred to as “die ungennante Mark-Substanz,” which he observed by stripping the optic tract caudally toward the region of the lateral geniculate body.

While the concept of the extended amygdala has yet to receive universal acceptance (Swanson, 2000; see also Basic Science Box 4), it has been amply confirmed in other laboratories (see next chapter), and its heuristic value is well established (McGinty, 1999; Koob and Le Moal, 2006). 4 CONCLUSION It is apparent that limbic system proponents and opponents alike are looking for something beyond the limbic system. One of LeDoux’s major complaints is that MacLean “packaged . . ” LeDoux maintains that different survival functions must be subserved by different emotional systems that need to be studied separately.

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