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By Benjamin F. Paley, Tomas E. Warfield

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Neuron, 10, 943-54. Jurman, M. , Boland, L. , Liu, Y. & Yellen, G. (1994). Visual identification of individual transfected cells for electrophysiology using antibody-coated beads. Biotechniques, 17, 876-81. Leonard, J. P. & Kelso, S. R. (1990). Apparent desensitization of NMDA responses in Xenopus oocytes involves calcium-dependent chloride current. , 4, 53-60. Ma, Z. , Wahle, P. & Hollmann, M. (2007). Quantitative analysis of cotransfection efficiencies in studies of ionotropic glutamate receptor complexes.

This indicates that adenosine is promoting long-term metabolic modifications which are leading to neuroprotection. Interestingly, the protection is mimicked by NBMPR, an adenosine uptake blocker, A2a agonists such as CGS 21680, or 8-bromo cyclic AMP, strongly suggesting that the effect is mediated by activation of A2a receptors and increase of cyclic AMP levels.

The results reveal a complex neurochemical network regulated by glutamate in the developing and mature retina. 18 Roberto Paes-de-Carvalho, Karin da Costa Calaza, Marcelo Cossenza et al. 1. , 1984). , 1986; Yazulla, 1986; Massey & Redburn, 1987; Thorenson & Witkovsky, 1999; Yang, 2004). , 1987; Barnstable, 1993; Massey & Maguire, 1995; Thorenson & Witkovsky, 1999). This flow of information is modulated by GABAergic inputs from horizontal and amacrine cells in the outer and inner plexiform layers, respectively (Yazulla, 1986; Tachibana & Kaneko, 1988; Barnstable, 1993; Sun & Crossland, 2000), which constitute the intrinsic circuitries of the retina.

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