By Zhongchao Tan
This textbook discusses engineering ideas on the subject of pollution and greenhouse gases (GHGs); it makes a speciality of engineering ideas and designs of comparable units and gear for air emission regulate for numerous industries equivalent to power, chemical, and transportation industries. The booklet goals basically at senior undergraduate and graduate scholars in mechanical, chemical and/or environmental engineering departments; it will possibly even be used as a reference publication by way of technical employees and layout engineers who're drawn to and want to have technical wisdom in pollution and GHGs. The e-book is inspired by way of contemporary fast advances in pollution and greenhouse gasoline emissions and their keep watch over applied sciences. as well as vintage subject matters regarding pollution, this ebook is usually featured with rising subject matters with regards to pollution and GHGs. It covers contemporary advances in engineering methods to the aid of GHG emissions together with, yet will not be restricted to, eco-friendly power applied sciences and carbon sequestration and garage. It additionally introduces an rising subject in pollution, that's known as Nano pollution. it's a transforming into obstacle in pollution, yet mostly lacking in comparable books, most likely due to contemporary swift advances in nanotechnology has outpaced the advances in nano pollution control.
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Extra info for Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases: From Basic Concepts to Engineering Applications for Air Emission Control
Scientiﬁc evidence is needed before deﬁnitive conclusions can be made. 2 Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse gases (GHGs) include CO2, methane (CH4), hydroﬂuorocarbons (HFCs), perﬂuorinated compounds (PFCs), and others. Most of them have been produced by natural sources and present in the atmosphere for a long, long time. It is only recently that extra anthropogenic GHGs may have contributed to global climate change and extreme weather. CO2 emissions are sometime referred to carbon emissions and are largely due to the combustion of fuels in electric power generation, engines, building heating, and industrial plants.
1 Anthropogenic Air Emissions Anthropogenic sources are related to the production and combustion of different fuels. Human activities are responsible for the increases in ground-level O3 and GHGs in recent years. About 95 % of NOx (nitric oxides) from human activity come from the burning of fossil fuels in power plants, engines, homes, and industries. 10 1 Air Emissions Air emissions are the byproducts of energy production and consumption; for example, the combustion of methane in pure oxygen can be written in a simpliﬁed form as CH4 þ O2 !
Similarly, a gas molecule velocity vector ~ c is described using its three directional components in a rectangular x-y-z coordinate system as ~ c ¼ cx^i þ cy^j þ cz ^k ð2:1Þ Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is the most commonly used for molecular speed distribution. The distribution of one-dimensional velocity À1 \ ci \ 1 is m 3=2 mc2 f ð ci Þ ¼ exp À i 2pkT 2kT i ¼ x; y; z ð2:2Þ This is a normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a variance of kT=m: It also applies to the other two velocity components.