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By George Gamow

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A full-size tephigram is provided with this book in a pocket at the back. Dry adiabats and Pressure isothermals are shown on this chart with full green lines. lines and pseudo adiabats are shown in full orange lines, and satura- tion humidity mixing ratio lines in broken orange lines. Other types of thermodynamic charts have been developed from time to time, but the pseudo adiabatic chart and the tephigram are two of the most widely used diagrams.

A reversible one, the efficiency 1 - T dT is, according to (17-12), THE CLAUSIUS-CLAPEYRON EQUATION Sec. 19] The work done in the cycle (L dW = in work is, then, given + dL) by T \ T + dT) A units and, therefore, to the 49 first order, m ^~A~T ^ 19>1 ^ The work done and so, is also equal to the area enclosed by the cycle A* B'DC with sufficient accuracy, dW = If vi and v2 (AB)dp represent the specific volumes of liquid water and water vapor respectively at T, then dW = - v^dp (v 2 (19-2) Equating (19-1) and (19-2) gives the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, - ^- _ - (V2 - -^ or dp L_ ~~ dT Since the pressure is that of saturated water vapor, replace p by cv Now v 2 ^> v\, so to a first approxto conform \vith previous usage.

B) For what value of the temperature lapse rate is the density constant with height? 2. Assume that the lapse rate of temperature in the troposphere is 6 C per km, whereas the temperature at all heights in the stratosphere is equal to that at the tropoCompute the change in surface pressure when the height of the tropopause pause. increases from 10 to 11 km, if initially the surface pressure is 1000 mb, and the surC. Assume that the pressure at a height face temperature has a constant value of 50 km is constant.

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