By Lucretius Carus, Titus; Konstan, David; Epicurus
Epicurus, and his Roman disciple Lucretius, held that the first reason behind human disappointment was once an irrational worry of dying. what's extra, they believed transparent figuring out of the character of the area might aid to get rid of this worry; for if we recognize that the universe and every little thing in it's made from atoms and empty area, we'll see that the soul can't potentially live to tell the tale the extinction of the physique -- and no damage to us can ensue once we die. This freeing perception is on the middle of Epicurean treatment. during this booklet, Konstan seeks to teach how such fears arose, in response to the Epicureans, and why they persist even in glossy societies. It deals an in depth exam of the elemental ideas of Epicurean psychology: displaying how a procedure in accordance with a materialistic international view may provide a coherent account of irrational anxieties and needs, and supply a remedy that will enable humans to get pleasure from existence to the fullest measure
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Additional info for A life worthy of the gods : the materialist psychology of Epicurus
24 Fear is the sign of a disturbance or tarakhê, of course; what then is joy a sign of? There is no evident reason for supposing that it constitutes awareness of the katastematic or stable condition of the body or soul. Let us pursue the analogy with fear. We understand fear as involving not simply the awareness of an unpleasant sensation, but rather as a complex emotion involving a 23 For an example of the kind of confusion that results from not distinguishing the parts of the soul in which pleasure and higher-order mental operations such as beliefs operate, cf.
This is to confuse voluptas (pleasure) with laetitia (joy); Boyancé does, however, recognize that on the intellectual level, fear takes the place of pain (“c’est moin encore la douleur que la crainte”). 58 (p. 27 Thilo), ascribes to the Epicureans the view that there are two distinct senses to the term voluptas, one physical, the other intellectual: “Epicurei enim dicunt, quod etiam Cicero tractat, geminam esse voluptatem, unam quae percipitur, et alteram imaginariam, scilicet eam quae nascitur ex cogitatione.
The difference between them is better expressed as that between non-rational vs. 15 ἐ[γ]κειμένην ὑπὲ[ρ τ]ῆς τ[ε]λευτῆς λύπην (“the distress that resides in us on account of death”). ” It is true, however, that Epicurus and especially Lucretius sometimes speak in a shorthand way as though aisthêsis and the pathê pertained to the body alone. That the awareness of pain resides in the soul is a doctrine that goes back to Plato Philebus 33D-34A, 43A-C; cf. Knuuttila 2004: 18. 15 Diano 1974: 252 asserts that “Πάθη nel senso specifico di ‘passioni’ s’incontra negli scritti epicurei di frequente,” citing frr.