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By George Burba, Dan Anderson

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No external air pump is required, thus reducing power consumption. Open path analyzers' flux losses are largely due to spatial separation between the sonic and the open path analyzer and due to rain events. Flux calculations based on in situ density measurement require significant density corrections. In the next pages we will go through all major instrument types using LI-COR gas analyzer models as examples. Brief Guide To Eddy Covariance Measurements |Burba & Anderson OPEN-PATH LI-7500A CO2/H2O ANALYZER • New 2010 model for CO2 and H2O fluxes • Based on widely used LI-7500 design • Modified to produce substantially less heat and to consume less power during extremely cold conditions • Includes fast logger for sonic anemometer data and gas analyzer data collection • Optimized for remote and mobile flux measurements: extremely low power and light The LI-7500A is a high speed, high precision, nondispersive infrared gas analyzer that accurately measures densities of carbon dioxide and water vapor in situ.

Examples of CO2 and H2O NDIR gas analyzers include the LI-COR LI-7200, LI-7500A, and LI-7000. An example of a fast CH4 laser analyzer is the LI-7700. html Modern fast-response instruments measuring carbon dioxide and water vapor densities utilize ab- 36 Brief Guide To Eddy Covariance Measurements |Burba & Anderson SONIC ANEMOMETERS • Proper installation, leveling and maintenance are important • Should be installed on firm base facing prevailing wind direction • Each instrument reacts differently to light rain events, but none of the instruments produce accurate readings in heavy precipitation • Rain, dew, snow and frost on the sonic transducer may change path length to estimate speed of sound and lead to small errors Proper installation, leveling and maintenance are important for sonic anemometers.

Fast temperature and fast pressure of the gas stream are measured at the sampling cell. Fast temperature is measured in two places; just before gas entry into the cell and just after the gas exits from the cell. Fast pressure is measured in the middle of the sampling cell. , D. McDermitt, D. Anderson, M. Furtaw, and R. Eckles, 2010. Novel design of an enclosed CO2/H2O gas analyzer for Eddy Covariance flux measurements. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology. 5 cm Coupled metal body: keeps sample cell warm and stable Inside the cell: - fast T is on inlet and outlet, fast P is in the middle - cell walls are made of PVC to minimize T gradient - cell has low sensitivity to dirt; same as LI-7500 The use of a short intake tube and fast temperature and pressure measurements made inside of the cell allow the LI-7200 to use the strengths of both openpath and closed-path designs at the same time.

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